Blood Flow: High resolution image of a single AOSLO field
In Vivo Retinal Phototoxicity Study: Accidental exposure to a pulsed infrared laser resulted in a patchy loss of photoreceptors colocalized with RPE disruption. The aversion response led to a trail of photoreceptor loss and increased scatter
Human Retinal Diseases: AMD Geographic Atrophy
Two-photon Imaging of the Retina: Two-photon ex vivo image of photoreceptors in macaque macular region
In Vivo Retinal Phototoxicity Study: Monkey RPE Mosaic
Blood Flow: The microvascular network imaged without contrast agents. The movement of single blood cells creates a spatio-temporal “flicker”. Motion contrast imaging reveals active perfusion in the vessels surrounding the fovea.
Two-photon Imaging of the Retina: Two-photon fluorescence image of living primate retina on the left and corresponding reflectance image of cones on the right
Two-photon Imaging of the Retina: Two-photon in vivo image of GFP-labeled ganglion cells in mouse. The two images are axially separated by 5µm
Human Retinal Diseases: Image of rods and cones
Blood Flow: Blood flow in a single capillary path is imaged without contrast agents. Top A single blood cell travels through a capillary (dashed green trace). Movement of this cell over time is highlighted with yellow arrows. The centerline profile of the capillary is "flattened" to show displacement and plotted over time (spatio-temporal plot, bottom). Change in displacement, dx, divided by change in time, dt reveals the velocity of cells. Blood velocities ~0.3-3 mm/second were measured by this method. Image field is 60 µm wide in top images.
Two-photon Imaging of the Retina: Ex vivo two-photon microscopy image of ganglion cells below the nerve fiber layer
Blood Flow: With AOSLO, we can observe three distinct capillary stratifications in the mouse retinal circulation. The above image shows a through-focus capture of three distinct capillary stratifications. Image field is 5 degrees of visual angle, ~150 microns across.
Two-photon Imaging of the Retina: Reflectance (left) and two-photon excited fluorescence (right) image of the photoreceptor mosaic in the living macaque eye. The main source of fluorescence is most likely all-trans-retinol.
Two-photon Imaging of the Retina: The image shows two-photon excited fluorescence captured from photoreceptors in the living macaque eye where selective S cone damage was induced at different time points. Immediately following the damaging exposure, S cones emit less fluorescence than the surrounding cones (upper left). Over the course of several weeks, S cones degenerate (center). Approximately 11 weeks after the damaging exposure (lower right), S cone outer segments have disappeared and rods have rearranged to fill their space
In vivo light damage study: RPE fluorescence pre-exposure, immediately post-exposure, and 6 days post-exposure.
Two-photon Imaging of the Retina: In vivo macaque photoreceptor TPEF intensity (a) and corresponding AOFLIO (b) images displaying mean lifetime.
Blood Flow: Vessels of the primate retina color coded by vessel angle.
Blood Flow: A binary mask showing perfused vessels surrounding the fovea of the primate. Vessel angle is coded by color.
Blood Flow: Non-invasive measurement of blood flow in a retinal arteriole.
Ganglion Cell Function: Fluorescent ring of ganglion cells serving the foveal cones. These cells are expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP, which allows cell responses to be monitored optically.
Ganglion Cell Function: Non-invasive, high resolution mapping of retinal ganglion cell receptive fields using their impulse response.
Ganglion Cell Function: Phase map of ganglion cell responses to a 0.2Hz drifting grating visual stimulus presented to the foveal cones.