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  • Bowles Johnson KE, Tang JAH, Kunala K, Huynh KT, Parkins K, Yang Q, Hunter JJ. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium in Pentosan Polysulfate Toxicity Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2024 Apr 1;65(4):27. doi: 10.1167/iovs.65.4.27. PMID: 38630675.
  • Godat T, Kohout K, Parkins K, Yang Q, McGregor JE, Merigan WH, Williams DR, Patterson SS (2024). Cone-Opponent Ganglion Cells in the Primate Fovea Tuned to Non-Cardinal Color Directions. J. Neuroscience 28 March 2024, e1738232024; DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1738-23.2024
  • Kunala K, Tang JAH, Bowles Johnson KE, Huynh KT, Parkins K, Kim HJ, Yang Q, Sparrow JR, Hunter JJ. Near Infrared Autofluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Using Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2024 May 1;65(5):27. doi: 10.1167/iovs.65.5.27. PMID: 38758638.
  • Xu Z, Kunala K, Murphy P, Patak L, Puthussery T, McGregor J (2024). Foveal Retinal Ganglion Cells Develop Altered Calcium Dynamics Weeks After Photoreceptor Ablation. Ophthalmology Science, 4(5): 100520, ISSN 2666-9145,
  • Zhang J, Sabarinathan R, Bubel T, Jia W, Williams DR, Hunter JJ (2024). Spectral Dependence of Light Exposure on Retinal Pigment Epithelium Disruption in Living Primate Retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2024;65(2):43.


  • Feng G, Joseph A, Dholakia K, et al. (2023) High-resolution structural and functional retinal imaging in the awake behaving mouse. Commun Biol 6, 572.
  • Feng G, Kunala K, Yang Q, Schallek J (2023). Quantitative phase and volumetric retinal imaging using angle-resolved AOSLO imaging. Proc. SPIE 12360, Ophthalmic Technologies XXXIII, 1236009;
  • Williams DR, Burns SA, Miller DT, & Roorda A (2023). Evolution of adaptive optics retinal imaging [Invited]. Biomed. Opt. Express 14, 1307-1338.


  • Dholakia KY, Guevara-Torres A, Feng G, Power D, Schallek J (2022). In Vivo Capillary Structure and Blood Cell Flux in the Normal and Diabetic Mouse Eye. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 63, 18. doi:10.1167/iovs.63.2.18 PDF
  • Godat T, Cottaris NP, Patterson S, Kohout K, Parkins K, Yang Q, et al (2022). In vivo chromatic and spatial tuning of foveolar retinal ganglion cells in Macaca fascicularis. PLoS ONE 17(11): e0278261.
  • Hu X & Yang Q (2022).Real-time correction of image rotation with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 39, 1663-1672.
  • Tang JAH, Granger CE, Kunala K, Parkins K, Huynh KT, Bowles-Johnson K, Yang Q, & Hunter JJ (2022). Adaptive optics fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy of in vivo human retinal pigment epithelium. Biomed. Opt. Express 13, 1737-1754. Erratum
  • Walters S, Feeks JA, Huynh KT, and Hunter JJ (2022). Adaptive optics two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the living non-human primate eye. Biomed. Opt. Express 13, 389-407. doi:10.1364/BOE.444550. PDF


  • Joseph A, Power D, & Schallek J (2021). Imaging the dynamics of individual processes of microglia in the living retina in vivo. Biomed. Opt. Express 12, 6157-6183. doi:10.1364/BOE.426157. PDF
  • McGregor JE, Kunala K, Xu Z, Murphy P, Godat T, Strazzeri JM, Bateman B, Fischer W, Puthussery T, Williams DR, Merigan WH (2021). Optogenetic therapy restores retinal activity in primate for at least a year following photoreceptor ablation. Molecular Therapy, 1525-0016, PDF
  • Song H, Rossi EA, Williams DR. Reduced foveal cone density in early idiopathic macular telangiectasia. BMJ Open Ophthalmol. 2021;6(1):e000603.


  • Aboualizadeh E, Phillips MJ, McGregor JE, DiLoreto DA Jr, Strazzeri JM, Dhakal KR, Bateman B, Jager LD, Nilles KL, Stuedemann SA, Ludwig AL, Hunter JJ, Merigan WH, Gamm DM, Williams DR (2020). Imaging Transplanted Photoreceptors in Living Nonhuman Primates with Single-Cell Resolution. Stem Cell Reports. S2213-6711(20)30240-X. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.06.019. PDF
  • Byrne LC, Day TP, Visel M, Fortuny C, Dalkara D, Merigan WH, Schaffer DV, Flannery JG (2020). In vivo directed evolution of AAV in the primate retina. JCI Insight. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.135112. [Epub ahead of print]. PDF
  • Canavesi C, Cogliati A, Mietus A, Qi Y, Schallek J, Rolland JP, Hindman HB (2020). In vivo imaging of corneal nerves and cellular structures in mice with Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy. Biomedical Optics Express 11(2), 711-724. PDF
  • Dhakal KR, Walters S, McGregor JE, Schwarz C, Strazzeri JM, Aboualizadeh E, Bateman B, Huxlin KR, Hunter JJ, Williams DR, Merigan WH (2020). Localized Photoreceptor Ablation Using Femtosecond Pulses Focused With Adaptive Optics. Translational Vision Science & Technology(9), 16. PDF
  • Guevara-Torres A, Williams DR, Schallek J (2020). Origin of cell contrast in offset aperture adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy. Optics Letters 45(4), 840-843. PDF
  • Joseph A, Chu CJ, Feng G, Dholakia K, Schallek J (2020). Label-free imaging of immune cell dynamics in the living retina using adaptive optics. eLife. S2213-6711(20)30240-X. doi: 10.7554/eLife.60547
  • McGregor JE, Godat T, Dhakal KR, Parkins K, Strazzeri JM, Bateman BA, Fischer WS, Williams DR, Merigan WH (2020). Optogenetic restoration of retinal ganglion cell activity in the living primate. Nature Communications 11(1), 1703. PDF
  • Silverstein SM, Demmin DL, Schallek JB, Fradkin SI (2020). Measures of Retinal Structure and Function as Biomarkers in Neurology and Psychiatry. Biomarkers in Neuropsychiatry. PDF


  • Alarcon-Martinez L, Yilmaz-Ozcan S, Yemisci M, Schallek J, Kılıç K, Villafranca-Baughman D, Can A, Di Polo A, Dalkara T (2019). Retinal ischemia induces α-SMA-mediated capillary pericyte contraction coincident with perivascular glycogen depletion. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 7(1):134. doi: 10.1186/s40478-019-0761-z. PDF
  • Hunter JJ, Merigan WH, Schallek JB (2019). Imaging Retinal Activity in the Living Eye. Annu Rev Vis Sci. 2019 Sep 15;5:15-45. doi: 10.1146/annurev-vision-091517-034239. PDF
  • Idrees S, Sridhar J, Kuriyan AE (2019). Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy: A Review. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 59(1):221-240. doi: 10.1097/IIO.0000000000000258. PDF
  • Joseph, A., Guevara-Torres, A., and Schallek, J. (2019). Imaging single-cell blood flow in the smallest to largest vessels in the living retina. ELife 8, e45077. PDF
  • McGregor JE (2019). Restoring vision at the fovea. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 30, 210-216. PDF
  • McGregor JE, Williams DR, Merigan WH (2019). Functional Assessment of Vision Restoration. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1185, 145-149. PDF
  • Song H, Rossi EA, Yang Q, Granger CE, Latchney LR, Chung MM (2019). High-Resolution Adaptive Optics in Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging in Stargardt Disease. JAMA Ophthalmol. PDF
  • Walters S, Schwarz C, Sharma R, Rossi E, Fischer W, DiLoreto D, Strazzeri J, Nelidova D, Roska B, Hunter J, Williams D, and Merigan W (2019). Cellular-scale evaluation of induced photoreceptor degeneration in the living primate eye. Biomed. Opt. Express 10, 66-82. PDF


  • Alarcon-Martinez L, Yilmaz-Ozcan S, Yemisci M, Schallek J, Kılıç K, Can A, Di Polo A, Dalkara T (2018). Capillary pericytes express α-smooth muscle actin, which requires prevention of filamentous-actin depolymerization for detection. Elife. PDF
  • Cheong SK, Strazzeri JM, Williams DR, Merigan WH (2018). All-optical recording and stimulation of retinal neurons in vivo in retinal degeneration mice. PLoS ONE 13(3): e0194947. PDF
  • Cheong SK, Xiong W, Strazzeri JM, Cepko CL, Williams DR, Merigan WH. (2018). In vivo Functional Imaging of Retinal Neurons Using Red and Green Fluorescent Calcium Indicators. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1074:135-144.
  • Granger CE, Yang Q, Song H, Saito K, Nozato K, Latchney LR, Leonard BT, Chung MM, Williams DR, Rossi EA (2018). Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium: In vivo Cell Morphometry, Multispectral Autofluorescence, and Relationship to Cone Mosaic. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 59(15):5705-5716. PDF
  • McGregor JE, Yin L, Yang Q, Godat T, Huynh KT, Zhang J, Williams DR, Merigan WH (2018). Functional architecture of the foveola revealed in the living primate. PLoS One 13(11):e0207102. PDF
  • Schwarz C, Sharma R, Cheong SK, Keller M, Williams DR, Hunter JJ (2018). Selective S Cone Damage and Retinal Remodeling Following Intense Ultrashort Pulse Laser Exposures in the Near-Infrared. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 59(15):5973-5984. doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-25383. PDF


  • Feeks JA & Hunter JJ (2017). Adaptive optics two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy of exogenous fluorophores in mice. Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 2483-2495. PDF
  • Marcos S, Werner JS, Burns SA, Merigan WH, Artal P, Atchison DA, Hampson KM, Legras R, Lundstrom L, Yoon G, Carroll J, Choi SS, Doble N, Dubis AM, Dubra A, Elsner A, Jonnal R, Miller DT, Paques M, Smithson HE, Young LK, Zhang Y, Campbell M, Hunter J, Metha A, Palczewska G, Schallek J, Sincich LC. (2017). Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field. Vision Res. 132:3-33. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2017.01.006. PDF
  • Rossi EA, Granger CE, Sharma R, Yang Q, Saito K, Schwarz C, Walters S, Nozato K, Zhang J, Kawakami T, Fischer W, Latchney LR, Hunter JJ, Chung MM, & Williams DR (2017). Imaging individual neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer of the living eye. PNAS. doi:10.1073/pnas.1613445114 PDF
  • Sharma R, Schwarz C, Hunter JJ, Palczewska G, Palczewski K, Williams DR (2017). Formation and Clearance of All-Trans-Retinol in Rods Investigated in the Living Primate Eye With Two-Photon Ophthalmoscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 58(1):604-613. PDF
  • Song H, Rossi EA, Stone E, Latchney L, Williams D, Dubra A, Chung M (2017). Phenotypic diversity in autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy elucidated by adaptive optics retinal imaging. Br J Ophthalmol. PDF


  • Schwarz C, Sharma R, Fischer WS, Chung M, Palczewska G, Palczewski K, Williams DR, Hunter JJ. (2016). Safety assessment in macaques of light exposures for functional two-photon ophthalmoscopy in humans. Biomed Opt Express. 7(12):5148-5169. PDF
  • Guevara-Torres A, Joseph A, & Schallek JB (2016). Label free measurement of retinal blood cell flux, velocity, hematocrit and capillary width in the living mouse eye. Biomed. Opt. Express, BOE 7, 4228–4249. PDF
  • Sharma R, Schwarz C, Williams DR, Palczewska G, Palczewski K, Hunter JJ (2016). In vivo Two-Photon Fluorescence Kinetics of Primate Rods and Cones. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 57(2):647-57. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-17946. PMID: 26903225 PDF
  • Sharma R, Williams DR, Palczewska G, Palczewski K, Hunter JJ (2016). Two-Photon Autofluorescence Imaging Reveals Cellular Structures Throughout the Retina of the Living Primate Eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 57(2):632-46. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-17961. PMID: 26903224 PDF


  • Guevara-Torres A, Williams DR, and Schallek JB (2015). Imaging translucent cell bodies in the living mouse retina without contrast agents. Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 2106-2119. PDF
  • Kotterman, M.A., Yin, L., Strazzeri, J.M., Flannery, J.G., Merigan, W.H., & Schaffer, D.V. (2015). Antibody neutralization poses a barrier to intravitreal adeno-associated viral vector gene delivery to non-human primates. Gene Therapy 22, 116–126. DOI:10.1038/gt.2014.115. PDF
  • Song H, Rossi EA, Latchney L, Bessette A, Stone E, Hunter JJ, Williams DR, Chung M (2015). Cone and Rod Loss in Stargardt Disease Revealed by Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy. JAMA Ophthalmol. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.2443. PDF
  • Yang, Q., Yin, L., Nozato, K., Saito, K., Zhang, J., Merigan, W.H., Williams, D.R. & Rossi, E.A. (2015). Calibration-free sinusoidal rectification and uniform retinal irradiance in scanning light ophthalmoscopy. Opt Lett. 40(1):85-8. doi: 10.1364/OL.40.000085 PDF
  • Zhang J, Yang Q, Saito K, Nozato K, Roorda A, Williams DR, and Rossi EA (2015). An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use: publisher's note. Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 2864-2864. PDF


  • Masella, B.D., Hunter, J.J., Williams, D.R (2014). Rod photopigment kinetics after photodisruption of the retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 55(11):7535-44. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-13796. PDF
  • Masella, B.D., Hunter, J.J., Williams, D.R (2014). New wrinkles in retinal densitometry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 55(11):7525-34. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-13795. PDF
  • Masella, B.D., Williams, D.R., Fischer, W.S., Rossi, E.A. & Hunter, J.J. (2014). Long-term reduction in infrared autofluorescence caused by infrared light below the maximum permissible exposure. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 55:3929-3938. DOI:10.1167/iovs.13-12562. PDF
  • Palczewska, G., Dong, Z., Golczak, M., Hunter, J.J., Williams, D.R., Alexander, N.S. & Palczewski, K. (2014). Noninvasive two-photon microscopy imaging of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium through the pupil of the eye. Nature Medicine 20, 785–789. doi:10.1038/nm.3590 PDF
  • Palczewska, G, Golczak, M, Williams, DR, Hunter, JJ, Palczewski, K (2014). Endogenous fluorophores enable two-photon imaging of the primate eye. IOVS. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14395. PDF
  • Song, H, Latchney, L, Williams, DR, Chung, M (2014). Fluorescence Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope for Detection of Reduced Cones and Hypoautofluorescent Spots in Fundus Albipunctatus. JAMA Ophthalmol. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.1079. PDF
  • Strazzeri JM, Hunter JJ, Masella BD, Yin L, Fischer WS, DiLoreto DA Jr, Libby RT, Williams DR, Merigan WH (2014). Focal damage to macaque photoreceptors produces persistent visual loss. Exp Eye Res 119:88-96. PDF
  • Yang, Q., Zhang, J., Nozato, K., Saito, K., Williams, D.R., Roorda, A. & Rossi, E.A. (2014). Closed-loop optical stabilization and digital image registration in adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. Biomedical Optics Express, 5(9):3174-3191. Selected by Optics InfoBase for "Spotlight on Optics." PDF
  • Yin L, Masella B, Dalkara D, Zhang J, Flannery JG, Schaffer DV, Williams DR, Merigan WH (2014). Imaging light responses of foveal ganglion cells in the living macaque eye. J Neurosci. ;34(19):6596-605. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4438-13.2014. PDF


  • Dalkara D, Byrne LC, Klimczak RR, Visel M, Yin L, Merigan WH, Flannery JG, Schaffer DV (2013). In vivo-directed evolution of a new adeno-associated virus for therapeutic outer retinal gene delivery from the vitreous. Sci Transl Med. 5(189):189ra76. PDF
  • Rangel-Fonseca, P., Gómez-Vieyra, A., Malacara-Hernández, D., Wilson-Herran, M.D., Williams, D.R., & Rossi, E.A. (2013). Automated segmentation of retinal pigment epithelium cells in fluorescence adaptive optics images, Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 30(12):2595-2604. PDF
  • Rossi, E.A., Achtman, R.L., Guidon, A., Williams, D. R., Roorda, A., Bavelier, D., & Carroll, J. (2013). Visual function and cortical organization in carriers of blue cone monochromacy. PLoS ONE, 8(2), e57956, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057956 PDF
  • Rossi EA, Rangel-Fonseca P, Parkins K, Fischer W, Latchney LR, Folwell MA, Williams DR, Dubra A, and Chung MM (2013). In vivo imaging of retinal pigment epithelium cells in age related macular degeneration. Biomedical Optics Express 4(11), pp. 2527–2539. PDF
  • Schallek J., Geng, Y., Nguyen, H., and Williams, D.R. (2013). Morphology and topography of retinal pericytes in the living mouse retina using in vivo adaptive optics imaging and ex vivo characterization. Invest Ophthal Vis Sci. PDF
  • Sharma R, Yin L, Geng Y, Merigan W, Palczewska G, Palczewski K, Williams D, Hunter J (2013), In vivo two-photon imaging of the mouse retina. Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1285-1293. PDF
  • Yin L, Geng Y, Osakada F, Sharma R, Cetin AH, Callaway EM, Williams DR, Merigan WH (2013). Imaging light responses of retinal ganglion cells in the living mouse eye. J Neurophysiol. 2013 Feb 13. PDF


  • Carroll, J., Dubra, A., Gardner, J.C., Mizrahi-Meissonnier, L., Cooper, R.F., Dubis, A.M., Nordgren, R., Genead, M., Connor, Jr., T.B., Stepien, K.E., Sharon, D., Hunt, D.M., Banin, E., Hardcastle, A.J., Moore, A.T., Williams, D.R., Fishman, G., Neitz, J., Neitz, M., Michaelides, M. (2012). The Effect of Cone Opsin Mutations on Retinal Structure and the Integrity of the Photoreceptor Mosaic. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-11087. PDF
  • Geng, Y., Dubra, A., Yin, L., Merigan, W.H., Sharma, R., Libby, R.T., and Williams, D.R. (2012). Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye. Biomed Opt Express 3(4), 715-734. PDF
  • Hunter, J.J., Morgan, J.I.W., Merigan, W.H., Sliney, D.H., Sparrow, J.R., Williams, D.R. (2012). The susceptibility of the retina to photochemical damage from visible light. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 31(1):28-42. PDF
  • Kay C, Abramoff M, Mullins R, Kinnick T, Lee K, Eyestone M, Chung M, Sohn E, Stone E (2012). Three-dimensional distribution of the vitelliform lesion, photoreceptors, and retinal pigment epithelium in the macula of patients with best vitelliform macular dystrophy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012; Mar;130(3):357-64. PMID 22084158. PDF
  • Petraglia A, Chengazi H, Chung M, Silberstein H (2012). Leber congenital amaurosis associated with Chiari I malformation: Two cases and a review of the literature. Surg Neurol Int 2012; 3:4-4. PMID 22347674. PDF


  • Doble, N., Choi, S., Codona, J., Christou, J., Enoch, J., Williams, D.R. (2011). In vivo imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic. Opt. Lett., 36(1), 31-3. PDF
  • Dubra, A., Sulai, Y., Norris, J., Cooper, R., Dubis, A., Williams, D.R., Carroll, J. (2011). Non-invasive in vivo imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope. Biomedical Optics Express, 2(7), 1864-1876 doi:10.1364/BOE.2.001864. PDF
  • Geng, Y., Schery, L., Sharma, R., Dubra, A., Ahmad, K., Libby, R., Williams, D.R. (2011). Optical properties of the mouse eye. Biomedical Optics Express 2(4), 717-738. PDF
  • Hunter, J.J., Masella, B., Dubra, A., Sharma, R., Yin, L., Merigan, W.H., Palczewska, G., Palczewski, K., Williams, D.R. (2011). Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics Two-photon ophthalmoscopy. Biomedical Optics Express. 2(1):139-148. PDF
  • Rossi, E.A., Chung, M., Dubra, A., Hunter, J.J., Merigan, W.H., Williams, D.R. (2011). Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye. Eye 25:301-308; doi:10.1038/eye.2010.221. PDF
  • Sallo F, Leung I, Chung M, Wolf-Schnurrbusch U, Dubra A, Williams, D, Clemons T, Pauleikhoff D, Bird A, Peto T and the MacTel study group. (2011) Retinal Crystals in Type 2 Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia. Ophthalmology 2011; Dec; 118(12):2461-7. PMID:21839520. PDF
  • Williams, D.R. (2011). Imaging single cells in the living retina. Vision Research, 51(13):1379-1396. doi: 10.1016. PDF
  • Yin, L., Greenberg, K., Hunter, J.J., Dalkara, D., Kolstad, K.D., Masella, B.D., Wolfe, R., Visel, M., Stone, D., Libby, R.T., DiLoreto, Jr., D., Schaffer, D.V., Flannery, J., Williams, D.R., Merigan, W.H. (2011). Intravitreal injection of AAV2 transduces macaque inner retina. IOVS. 52(5):2775-2783. PDF


  • Carroll, J., Rossi, E.A., Porter, J., Neitz, J., Roorda, A., Williams, D.R., Neitz, M. (2010). Deletion of the x-linked opsin gene array locus control region (LCR) results in disruption of the cone mosaic. Vision Res.,50(19):1989-1999. PDF
  • Palczewska, G., Maeda, T., Imanishi, Y., Sun, W., Chen, Y., Williams, D.R., Maeda, A., Palczewski, K. (2010). Noninvasive multiphoton fluorescence microscopy resolves retinol condensation products in mouse eyes. Nat. Med. 16(12):1444-9. PDF
  • Shroff, S.A., Fienup, J.R., Williams, D.R. (2010). Lateral superresolution using a posteriori phase shift estimation for a moving object: experimental results. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis., 27(8):1770-82. PDF
  • Wagner-Schuman, M., Neitz, J., Rha, J., Williams, D.R., Neitz, M., Carroll, J. (2010). Color-deficient cone mosaics associated with Xq28 opsin mutations: A stop codon versus gene deletions. Vision Res. 50:2396-2402. PDF


  • Carroll, J., Baraas, R.C., Wagner-Schuman, M., Rha, J., Siebe, C.A., Sloan, C., Tait, D.M., Thompson, S., Morgan, J.I., Neitz, J., Williams, D.R., Foster, D.H., Neitz, M. (2009). Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 106(49):20948-53. PDF
  • Geng, Y., Greenberg, K.P., Wolfe, R., Gray, D.C., Hunter, J.J., Dubra, A., Flannery, J.G., Williams, D.R., Porter, J. (2009). In vivo imaging of microscopic structures in the rat retina. Invest. Ophtalmol. Vis. Sci., 50(12):5872-9. PDF
  • Gomez-Vieyra, A., Dubra, A., Malacara-Hernandez, D., Williams, D.R., (2009). First-order design of off-axis reflective ophthalmic adaptive optics systems using afocal telescopes. Optics Express, 17(21), pp.18906-18919. PDF
  • Morgan, J.I.W., Dubra, A., Wolfe, R., Merigan, W.H., Williams, D.R. (2009). In vivo autofluorescence imaging of the human and macaque retinal pigment epithelial cell mosaic. IOVS, 50(3), 1350-1359. PDF
  • Morgan, J.I.W., Hunter, J.J., Williams, D.R., Merigan, W.H. (2009). The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci., 50(12):6015-22. PDF
  • Scoles, D., Gray, D.C., Hunter, J.J., Wolfe, R., Gee, B.P., Geng, Y., Masella, B.D., Libby, R.T., Russell, S., Williams, D.R., Merigan, W.H. (2009). In vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging – histology comparison. BMC Ophthalmology, 9:9 doi:10.1186/1471-2415-9-9. PDF
  • Shroff, S.A., Fienup, J.R., Williams, D.R. (2009). Phase-shift estimation in sinusoidally illuminated images for lateral superresolution. JOSA A, 26, 413-424. PDF


  • Brainard, D.H., Williams, D.R., Hofer, H. (2008). Trichromatic reconstruction from the interleaved cone mosaic: Bayesian model and the color appearance of small spots. Journal of Vision, 8(5):15,1-23. PDF
  • Carroll, J., Choi, S.S., Williams, D.R. (2008). In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic of a rod monochromat. Vision Research, 48(26):2564-2568. PDF
  • Gray, D.C., Wolfe, R., Gee, B.P., Scoles, D., Geng, Y., Masella, B.D., Dubra, A., Luque, S., Williams, D.R., Merigan, W.H. (2008). In vivo imaging of the fine structure of rhodamine labeled macaque retinal ganglion cells. IOVS, 49(1), 467-73. PDF
  • Morgan, J.I.W., Hunter, J.J., Masella, B., Wolfe, R., Gray, D.C., Merigan, W.H., Delori, F.C., Williams, D.R. (2008). Light-Induced Retinal Changes Observed with High-Resolution Autofluorescence Imaging of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium. IOVS, 49(8), 3715-3729. PDF


  • Baraas, R., Carroll, J., Gunther, K., Chung, M., Williams, D.R., Foster, D., Neitz, M. (2007). Adaptive-optics retinal imaging reveals S-cone dystrophy in tritan color-vision deficiency. JOSA A, 24(5), 1438-1447. PDF
  • Chen, L., Artal, P., Gutierrez, D., Williams, D. R. (2007). Neural compensation for the best aberration correction. Journal of Vision, 7(10), Article 9, 1-9. PDF
  • Doble, N., Miller, D.T., Yoon, G., Williams, D.R. (2007). Requirements for discrete actuator and segmented wave-front correctors for aberration compensation in two large populations of human eyes. Appl Opt 46(20) 4501-4514. PDF
  • Sabesan, R., Jeong, TM., Cox, I., Williams, D.R., Yoon, GY. (2007). Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes. Optics Letters, 32(8), 1000-1002. PDF


  • Chen, L., Kruger, P., Hofer, H., Singer, B., Williams, D.R. (2006). Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 23(1). PDF
  • Gray, D., Merigan, W., Wolfing, J., Gee, B., Porter, J., Dubra, A., Twietmeyer, T., Ahmad, K., Tumbar, R., Reinholz, F., Williams, D.R. (2006). In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. Optics Express, 14(16), 7144-7158. PDF
  • Makous, W., Carroll, J., Wolfing, J., Lin, J., Christie, N., Williams, D.R. (2006). Retinal microscotomas revealed with adaptive-optics microflashes. IOVS, 47(9), 4160-4167. PDF
  • Porter, J., Yoon, G., Lozano, D., Wolfing, J., Tumbar, R., MacRae, S., Cox, I.G., Williams, D.R. (2006). Aberrations induced in wavefront-guided laser refractive surgery due to shifts between natural and dilated pupil center locations. J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32, 21-32. PDF
  • Wolfing, J., Chung, M., Carroll, J., Roorda, A., Williams, D.R. (2006). High-resolution retinal imaging of cone-rod dystrophy. Ophthalmology, 113(6): 1019.e1. PDF


  • Carroll, J., Gray, D., Roorda, A. Williams, D.R. (2005). Recent advances in retinal imaging with adaptive optics. Optics and Photonics News 16(1): 36-42. PDF
  • Chen, L., Singer, B., Guirao, A., Porter, J., Williams, D.R. (2005). Image metrics for predicting subjective image quality. Optometry and Vision Science, 82(5), 358-369. PDF
  • Choi, S., Doble, N., Lin, J., Christou, J., Williams, D.R. (2005). Effect of wavelength on in vivo images of the human cone mosaic. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 22(12), 2598-2605. PDF
  • Hofer, H., Carroll, J., Neitz, J., Neitz, M., Williams, D.R. (2005). Organization of the human trichromatic cone mosaic. J Neurosci., 25(42):9669-9679. PDF
  • Hofer, H., Singer, B., Williams, D.R. (2005). Different sensations from cones with the same photopigment. Journal of Vision, 444-454. PDF
  • Porter, J., Yoon, G., MacRae, S., Pan, G., Twietmeyer, T., Cox, I., Williams, D.R. (2005). Surgeon offsets and dynamic eye movements in laser refractive surgery. J. Cataract Refractive Surgery, 31, 2058-2066.PDF
  • Putnam, N., Hofer, H., Doble, N., Chen, L., Carroll, J., Williams, D.R. (2005). The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic. Journal of Vision, 0, 1-8. PDF
  • Yoon, G.Y., MacRae, S., Williams, D.R., Cox, I. (2005). Causes of spherical aberration induced by laser refractive surgery. J. Cataract Refractive Surgery, 31:127-135. PDF


  • Artal, P., Chen, L., Fernandez, E.J., Singer, B., Manzanera, S., Williams, D.R. (2004). Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations. JOV, 4, 281-287. PDF
  • Carroll, J., Neitz, M., Hofer, H., Neitz, J., Williams, D.R. (2004). Functional photoreceptor loss revealed with adaptive optics: An alternate cause of color blindness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(22), 8461-8466. PDF
  • Christou, J., Roorda, A., Williams, D.R. (2004). Deconvolution of adaptive optics retinal images. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 21(8), 1393-1401. PDF
  • Diller, L., Packer, O., Verweij, J., McMahon, M., Williams, D.R., Dacey, D. (2004). L- and M- cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion cell receptive fields of macaque monkey retina. J. Neuroscience, 24, 1079-1088. PDF
  • Doble, N., Williams, D.R. (2004). The application of MEMS technology for adaptive optics in vision science. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 10(3), 629-635. PDF
  • Huxlin, K., Yoon, G.Y., Nagy, L., Brandon, E., Porter, J., Cox, I., MacRae, S., Williams, D.R. (2004). Monochromatic ocular wave-front aberrations in the awake-behaving cat. Vision Research, 44, 2159-2169. PDF


  • Artal, P., Chen, L., Fernandez, E., Singer, B., Manzanera, S., Williams, D.R. (2003). Adaptive Optics for Vision: The Eye's Adaptation to Its Point Spread Function. J. Refrac. Surgery, 19, p. S585-S587. PDF
  • Guirao, A., Williams, D.R. (2003). A method to predict refractive errors from wave aberration data. Optometry and Vision Science, 80(1), 36-42. PDF
  • Guirao, A., Williams, D.R., MacRae, S. (2003). Effect of beam size on the expected benefit of customized laser refractive surgery. J. Refractive Surgery, 19, 15-23. PDF
  • Pallikaris, A., Williams, D.R., Hofer, H. (2003). The reflectance of single cones in the living human eye. IOVS, 44(10), 4580-4592. PDF
  • Porter, J., MacRae, S., Yoon, G.Y., Roberts, C., Cox, I., Williams, D.R. (2003). Separate effects of microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye's wave aberration. Am. J. Ophthal., 136(2), 327-337. PDF


  • Doble, N., Yoon, G.Y., Chen, L., Bierden, P., Singer, B., Olivier, S., Williams, D.R. (2002). Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye. Optics Letters, 27(17), 1537-1539. PDF
  • Guirao, A., Cox, I., Williams, D.R. (2002). Method for optimizing the benefit of correcting the eye's higher- order aberrations in the presence of decentrations. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 19(1), 126-128. PDF
  • Guirao, A., Porter, J., Williams, D.R., Cox, I. (2002). Calculated impact of higher-order monochromatic aberrations on retinal image quality in a population of human eyes: erratum. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 19(3), 620-628. PDF
  • Neitz, J., Carroll, J., Yamauchi, Y., Neitz, M., Williams, D.R. (2002). Color Perception is Mediated by a Plastic Neural Mechanism that Remains Adjustable in Adults. Neuron, 35, 783-792. PDF
  • Roorda, A., Williams, D.R. (2002). Optical fiber properties of individual human cones. Journal of Vision, 2, 404-412. PDF
  • Yoon, G.Y., Williams, D.R., (2002). Visual performance after correcting the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of the eye. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 19(2), 266-275. PDF


  • Artal, P., Guirao, A., Berrio, E., Williams, D.R., (2001). Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye. Journal of Vision, (R1), 1-8. PDF
  • Guirao, A., Williams, D.R., Cox, I., (2001). Effect of rotation and translation on the expected benefit of an ideal method to correct the eye's higher-order aberrations. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 18(5), 1003-1015. PDF
  • Hofer, H., Artal, P., Singer, B., Aragón, J.L., Williams, D.R. (2001). Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 497-506. PDF
  • H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, (2001). Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations. Optics Express 8, 631-643. PDF
  • MacRae, S., Williams, D.R., (2001). Wavefront Guided Ablation. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 132(6), 915-919. PDF
  • Packer, O., Diller, L., Verweij, J., Lee, B., Pokorny, J., Williams, D.R., Dacey, D., and Brainard, D. (2001). Characterization and use of a digital light projector for vision research. Vision Research, 41, 427-439. PDF
  • Porter, J., Guirao, A., Cox, I., Williams, D.R. (2001). Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A., 18(8), 1793-1803. PDF
  • Roorda, A., Metha, A., Lennie, P., Williams, D.R., (2001). Packing arrangement of the three cone classes in the primate retina. Vision Research, 41(12), 1291-1306. PDF


  • Brainard, D.H., Roorda, A., Yamauchi, Y., Calderone, H.B., Metha, A., Neitz, M., Neitz, J., Williams, D.R., and Jacobs, G.H. (2000). Functional Consequences of the Relative Numbers of L and M Cones. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 607-614. PDF
  • Dacey, D.M., Diller, L.C., Williams, D.R. (2000). Physiology of L and M cone inputs to H1 horizontal cells in primate retina. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 589-596. PDF
  • Deeb, S.S., Diller, L.C., Williams, D.R., Dacey, D.M. (2000). Interindividual and topographical variation of L:M cone ratios in monkey retinae. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 538-544. PDF
  • McMahon, M.J., Lankheet, M.J.M., Lennie, P., Williams, D.R.(2000). Fine structure of parvocellular receptive fields in the primate fovea revealed by laser interferometry. J. Neuroscience. 20(5):2043-2053. PDF
  • Williams, D.R., Yoon, G.Y., Porter, J., Guirao, A., Hofer, H., Cox, I., (2000). Visual benefit of correcting higher order aberrations of the eye. J. of Refractive Surgery. 16, S554-S559. PDF


  • Roorda, A. and Williams, D.R. (1999). The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye. Nature, 397, 520-522. PDF


  • Merigan W., & Pham H. (1998). V4 lesions in macaques affect both single- and multiple-viewpoint shape discriminations. Visual Neuroscience, 15(2), 359-367. PDF


  • Liang, J. and Williams, D.R. (1997). Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A., 14, 2873-2883. PDF
  • Liang, J., Williams, D.R., and Miller, D.T. (1997). Supernormal vision and high resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A., 14, 2884-2892. PDF
  • Merigan W, Freeman A, Meyers SP (1997). Parallel processing streams in human visual cortex. Neuroreport, 8(18):3985-91. PDF


  • Galvin, S. J., Williams, D.R., and Coletta, N.J. (1996). The spatial grain of motion perception in human peripheral vision. Vision Res., 36, 2283-2295. PDF
  • Miller, D., Williams, D.R., Morris, G.M., and Liang, J. (1996). Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye. Vision Res., 36, 1067-1079 PDF
  • Packer, O.S., Williams, D.R., and Bensinger, D.G. (1996). Photopigment transmittance imaging of the primate photoreceptor mosaic. J. Neurosci., 16, 2251-2260. PDF
  • O'Shea, R.and Williams, D.R. (1996). Binocular rivalry with isoluminant stimuli visible only via the short-wavelength-sensitive cones. Vision Res., 36, 1561-1571. PDF
  • Williams, D.R., Artal, P., Navarro, R., McMahon, M.J., Brainard, D.H. (1996). Off-axis optical quality and retinal sampling in the human eye. Vision Res., 36, 1103-1114. PDF


  • Artal, P., Marcos, S., Navarro, R., Williams, D.R. (1995). Odd-order aberrations and double pass measurements of retinal image quality. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A., 12, 195-201. PDF
  • Miller, D.T., Cho., D.J., Morris, G.M., and Williams, D.R. (1995). Bispectral imaging through unknown deterministic aberrations. J. of Mod. Optics, 42, 1523-1546. PDF